Supplement to the
Revelation and Hazrat Mirza’s claim
Muhaddas and Hazrat Mirzas claim
Further to Section 5, we deal here first with the
concept of muhaddas according to Islamic teachings, and then show
that Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad claimed in those terms to be a muhaddas.
1. Concept of Muhaddas in Islam
The Holy Prophet Muhammad said to his followers:
Among the Israelites before you, there used to be men who were
spoken to by God, though they were not prophets, and if there is such
a one among my people it is Umar.
(Bukhari, book: Qualities of the Companions of the Holy
Prophet, ch. Umar; 62:6)
In another version of this hadith in the same source, instead of the
words rijal-un yukallamuna (men spoken to by God)
the word muhaddas (lit. one to whom something is told)
Among the nations before you there used to be muhaddases,
and if there is one of them in my nation it is Umar.
(ibid.; see also Sahih Muslim, Kitab al-Fazail, ch. Virtues
of Umar; vol. vi, p. 91 of the edition with Urdu translation published
by Khalid Ihsan Publishers, Lahore, 1981. The hadith in Bukhari is related
by Abu Huraira, while that in Muslim is related by Aishah.)
This establishes the concept and definition of muhaddas in
Islam a non-prophet who receives revelation. (This revelation
is, of course, of the type open to saints, i.e. wahy wilayat,
and not wahy nubuwwat, as discussed in Sections
4 and 5 of the Evidence.) Classical and modern
authorities in Islam have explained what is meant by a muhaddas
1. Classical Commentary on Bukhari
By muhaddas are meant persons to whom God speaks, without
them being prophets.
(Aini, Commentary on Bukhari, vol. vii, p. 614)
2. Ruh al-Maani
Commenting on the verse of the Quran which describes three modes of revelation
(42:51), this famous commentary of the Quran says:
In this verse, God has referred to people in general, and
not prophets as such, because revelation is not confined to prophets.
In previous times, there is the example of Mary and the mother of
Moses, who were not prophets but God spoke to them. In our religion,
that will be the position of muhaddases of the nation. They
will receive revelation.
(See Ruh al-Maani under verse 42:51)
3. Shaikh Ahmad of Sirhind:
Know, O truthful brother, that the speaking of God with man
is sometimes face-to-face. This is for the prophets, and is also for
some of their perfect followers due to obedience and as inheritance.
When a follower receives Divine speech abundantly and frequently in
this manner, he is called a muhaddas, as was Umar, the chief
of the Muslims.
(Maktubat, vol. iii, part vii, p. 2, letter no. 51)
4. Sayyid Muhammad Ismail Shaheed:
The quality of Umar mentioned in the hadith, If there
had been a prophet after me, it would have been Umar, has
been explained by the Holy Prophet as the rank of muhaddas.
This is because, after the finality of prophethood, it would not be
correct to ascribe prophethood and apostleship to anyone. Similarly,
regarding the position of Ali mentioned in the well-known hadith,
You stand in the same relation to me as that in which Aaron
stood to Moses, except that there is no prophet after me,
it is said that this is also the rank of muhaddas. Also, in
the hadith, The Ulama of my nation are like the prophets
of Israel, by ulama are meant the people known as
(Abqaat, Urdu translation by Manazir Ahsan Gilani, published
in A.P., India, p. 403)
5. Shah Wali-ullah of Delhi:
The rank of muhaddas is such that when a muhaddas
arises, he does not have to follow conclusions derived by human reasoning,
just as the sun eliminates the need for ordinary lamps. For he comes
with revelation and the knowledge given to prophets.
(Tafhimat, p. 136)
6. Maulana Abul Kalam Azad:
The most exalted group consists of those exclusively select,
purified souls who are chosen by the Grantor of Divine grace and favour
for momentous tasks. Their light of knowledge and action is derived
from the fountain of prophethood, and they follow in the path of prophethood.
These special persons are referred to in the hadith of Bukhari by
the term muhaddas.
(Tazkira, Lahore, first published 1919, p. 114)
2. Hazrat Mirzas claim
We now give extracts from Hazrat Mirzas writings to show that he
clearly claimed to be a muhaddas, as distinct from a prophet:
- There is no doubt that this humble one has come from
God as a muhaddas for the Muslim nation. (Tauzih Maram,
- There is no claim of prophethood; on the contrary, the claim
is of muhaddasiyyat [being a muhaddas] which has been
advanced by the command of God. (Izala Auham, p. 421)
- O brothers, I have been sent as a muhaddas from God,
to you and to all those on earth. (Ainah Kamalat Islam,
- I am not a prophet but a muhaddas from God, and a
recipient of Divine revelation so that I may re-vitalise the religion
of the Holy Prophet. (ibid., p. 383)
- ... I have not claimed prophethood, nor have I said to them
that I am a prophet. ... I did not say anything to the people except
what I wrote in my books, namely, that I am a muhaddas and
God speaks to me as He speaks to muhaddases. (Hamamat
al-Bushra, p. 79; new edition pp. 281282)
- I firmly believe that our Holy Prophet Muhammad is the Last
of the Prophets (Khatam al-anbiya), and after him no prophet
shall come for this nation (umma), neither new nor old. Not
a jot or tittle of the Holy Quran shall be abrogated. Of course, muhaddases
will come who will be spoken to by God ... I am one of these.
(Nishan Asmani, p. 28)
- As our Leader and Messenger [Holy Prophet Muhammad] is the
Last of the Prophets (Khatam al-anbiya), and no prophet can
come after him, for this reason muhaddases have been substituted
for prophets in this Shariah. (Shahadat al-Quran,
Hazrat Mirza, therefore, claimed to be a muhaddas in the technical
sense of this term. See Section 5 of the Evidence
for his definition of the technical meaning of muhaddas. See
also Section 10.3, dealing with his statement
in Ayk Ghalati Ka Izala about the root meaning of the
word muhaddas. Never did Hazrat Mirza say that he had progressed
from the position of a muhaddas to the higher position of a prophet.