Muslim saints and sufis in India
| Translators Note:
This Section is similar in content to the last,
but it concentrates on saints and sufi writers who moulded the religious
environment of the part of the world where Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
lived. Besides recognised saints of classical ages, writings of
more recent periods have also been quoted, showing that such forms
of expression for spiritual ranks are also used in modern times.
People who are God-fearing and fair-minded should take a look at the spiritual
thought prevailing in the environment in which Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
appeared, in the cities of Punjab and of the Indian sub-continent generally
where there now remained just memorials of the great Sufi saints and savants
of Islam. These were the cities of Ajmer, Sirhind, Sialkot, Lahore, Pak
Patan, Sultan Bahu, Tonsa, Chachar, Delhi, Deoband, Thana Bhoon, Gangoh,
Bareli, etc. If the opponents of the Ahmadiyya Movement would read the
pronouncements and writings of the saints who arose in these places, they
would not raise objections to Hazrat Mirzas explanations of the
fine points and truths of Tasawwuf and Tariqat (the spiritual
side of Islam). A person who reads the revelations and writings of Hazrat
Mirza in the light of the views of these eminent saints would not only
comprehend the intricate concepts and terms of Tariqat, but would
be convinced of the greatness of Hazrat Mirza, and would not hesitate
in classing him with the most renowned elders of Islam.
8.2: Pronouncements of saints
1. Khawaja Muin-ud-Din Chishti of Ajmer (d. 1236 C.E.)
He was the mujaddid of his time and the saint who laid the foundations
of the propagation of Islam in India. He wrote the following verses:
- Every moment the Holy Spirit [angel Gabriel] inspires into
So it is not me who says this, but the fact is that I am the
(Diwan Khawaja Ajmeri, ode no. 70, p. 102)
- If the Holy Spirit continues bringing its help,
Every day in the world the Mary of the time would give birth
to a Jesus.
- It is recorded:
Once in our presence a man came to enter into the discipleship
of the Khawaja of Ajmer. The Khawaja asked him to recite the Kalima
[i.e. There is no god but Allah, and Muhammad is the Messenger
of Allah]. The man recited the Kalima. The Khawaja said
to him: Say it like this, There is no god but Allah and
Chishti is the Messenger of Allah. The man did so, and
the Khawaja accepted the pledge from him and invested him with the
robe of honour.
(Fawaid as-Salikeen, p. 18)
2. Shaikh Ahmad of Sirhind (d. 1624 C.E.)
Known in India and Pakistan as Mujaddid Alif Sani (Mujaddid of
the second millenium of Islam), this saint and scholar wrote:
- But that Sufi who, after attaining fana and baqa,
and sair an-illa b-illa [i.e. contact and nearness with God],
turns to the world and calls people to the way of truth, he attains
a part of prophethood, and is classed with those who deliver the commandments
of the faith.
(Maktubat, Daftar I, letter no. 48, p. 120)
- Though the office of prophethood has been ended, still the
perfect followers of the prophets can share some attainments and characteristics
of prophethood through inheritance and obedience.
(ibid., Daftar II, letter no. 6, p. 25)
- I am the disciple of God and also His intention. My devotion
to God is linked directly to Him without any intermediary. My hand
is the representative of Gods hand. Glory be to Him! So I am
the disciple of the Holy Prophet Muhammad as well as his spiritual
(ibid., Daftar III, letter no. 87, p. 209)
- It should be known that it is allowable that a person attain
nearness to prophethood by the path of attaining to sainthood, and
have something of both of these.
(Letter no. 123, p. 348)
- During spiritual progress, I reached the station of Usman
[the third Caliph of Islam] and, passing beyond it, reached the station
of Farooq [Umar, the second Caliph]. Passing beyond that, I reached
the station of Siddiq [Abu Bakr, the first Caliph]. Passing beyond
that, I reached the station of being the beloved of God, and saw in
myself the reflection of all the light and blessings of this station.
(Letter of Shaikh Ahmad quoted by Moghal emperor Jehangir in his
diary, Tauzak Jehangiri, p. 272, published in Ghazipur, 1863)
- Since the religious law brought by the Holy Prophet Muhammad
is protected from abrogation and alteration, for this reason the learned
ones of the Muslim nation have been given the place of prophets.
(Maktubat, Daftar I, letter no. 209, p. 34)
- Due to their complete devotion and overflowing love, rather,
as a mere gift and favour, the perfect followers of the prophets absorb
the attainments of the prophet they follow, and become fully coloured
with his colour, so much so that between the prophets and the followers
there remains no difference, except that the prophet reaches his position
directly while the follower attains it through obedience, or that
the prophet precedes and the follower comes after ... so one cannot
imagine equality between the original and the image (zill).
(ibid., letter no. 248)
- A follower attains such a likeness to the one he follows
that there no longer remains the concept of following,
and the distinction between the follower and the mentor vanishes.
It appears as if whatever the follower obtains, while being in the
colour of his prophet, is obtained directly from God, as if the two
of them are drinking from the same fountain and are in each others
arms, and are in the same bed, and are hand-in-glove. Where is the
follower, and who is the master, and whose obedience! In their unity
there remains no room for separateness, and there appears no difference
between the acts of following and of being followed.
(ibid., Daftar II, letter no. 54, p. 172)
3. Khawaja Habib-ullah Attar of Kashmir (15th century saint)
He instructed a disciple of his as follows about the Kalima:
Lengthen your saying of la ilaha [There is no
god], and efface the thought of all others than God from the
heart. After that, ill-Allah [except Allah] should
be stressed, and you should consider me to be the messenger of Allah.
(Masnawi Bahr al-Irfan, vol. i, p. 179)
4. Baba Dawud Khaki
He wrote the following in praise of his spiritual guide Hazrat Makhdum
As the Holy Prophet Muhammad has said that the spiritual guide
is like a prophet,
How can a man be a believer who denies such a prophet.
5. Ali Hujwiri, Data Ganj Bakhsh (d. 1071 C.E.)
This renowned saint of Lahore, author of the acclaimed Persian classic
Kashf al-Mahjub, wrote:
- So God has kept the proof of the truth of the Holy Prophet
Muhammad alive till today, and has made the saints the means through
which it is displayed, so that the signs of God and the evidence of
the Holy Prophets truth be manifested forever.
(Kashf al-Mahjub, Persian, p. 167)
- The saint does not reach perfection till he enters the circle
of the prophets.
(As quoted in the Urdu book The Constitution of Pakistan and
the Ahmadiyya Sect, p. 23)
6. Farid-ud-Din Shakar Ganj of Pak Patan (d. 1265 C.E.)
He says in a poetic verse:
I am wali [saint], I am Ali, I am nabi [prophet].
(Haqiqat Gulzar Sabiri, by Shah Muhammad Hasan Sabiri, first
published in Rampur, 1886, sixth edition published by Maktaba Sabiriyya,
Qasur, Pakistan, 1983, p. 414. See also well-known Urdu daily Nawa-i
Waqt, Lahore, Pakistan, 4 July 1964.)
7. Anwar as-Sufiyya
In this Lahore monthly magazine, it said in an article under the heading
What greater proof of the truth of the teachings of the Holy
Prophet Muhammad and his blessings can there be than the fact that
whoever follows him perfectly receives a reflected (zilli)
prophethood from God, is given the task of preaching to mankind, and
is appointed a khalifa or deputy for the support of the religion
of Islam. There have been such exalted persons in every age, and there
will continue to be such persons in the future, regarding whom the
Holy Prophet has said: The learned ones of my nation are
like the prophets of Israel.
(Anwar as-Sufiyya, vol. iv, no. 3, December 1907, p. 12)
8. Sultan Bahu (d. 1691 C.E.)
He was the first Punjabi mystical poet. He wrote:
- The station of fana fish-shaikh [self-annihilation
in ones spiritual mentor] means that whenever the seeker-after-God
should imagine the figure of his spiritual guide in his heart, the
latter should come forthwith [spiritually] and lead him by the hand
to the company of the Holy Prophet Muhammad. Such a guide is referred
to as yuhyi wa yumeet [an expression in the Quran meaning He
gives life and causes death].
(Kaleed at-Tauheed, pp. 37 38)
- He writes in poetic verse:
The arsh [Throne], the kursi [Chair], the
luh [Tablet] and the Qalam [Pen] are all in the heart.
He who finds the heart, grieves no more. (ibid., p. 18)
(The terms arsh etc. are all well-known expressions in
the Quran, referring to various attributes of God such as His power
I am a bird of no abode, I live nowhere but in no abode.
So being a dervish is my mark, and I am fana fi-llah [effaced
in God]. (ibid., p. 61)
Because of inner light, Gods revelation is received
every moment [by a saint]. Because of [the Quranic words] We
are nigh, he attains Divine nearness and company.
He who is looked upon favourably by a dervish, his rank is
higher than that of the Divine Throne.
(ibid., p. 180)
I know only the Truth, I see only the Truth, I cry only
Truth is in me and I am in the Truth, this is the Truth.
(ibid., p. 194; Truth here refers to the name of God, Haqq,
in the Quran.)
9. Khawaja Shah Sulaiman Tonsovi (d. 1852 C.E.)
- The following verses of poetry were written in his praise:
Arise by Gods command was a miracle at the
hand of Jesus, but you made thousands into Messiahs by a single
When Moses beheld the Divine light on the mountain, he fainted
and lost consciousness of the world.
But you O Kalim-ullah [name of Moses] see that light
every instant, and still display a smile, desire and full understanding.
You are the light of God, your light is in both the worlds.
The Throne, the Chair and the stars all display your light.
You are the sun, you are the moon, you are the light upon
light. You are the light of Muhammad, you are the key to the
The seal of your sainthood is the seal in your finger-ring.
What a glorious sainthood, having the rank of messengership (risalat).
(Manaqib al-Mahbubin, pp. 249 250)
- Hazrat Siyalwi then mentioned a dream of the Khawaja, to
wit, that one night he dreamt that over his head and under his feet
and to his right and left had been placed the Holy Quran. He asked
a learned man the interpretation of this dream. He said: Congratulations,
you will abide by the Holy Quran under all circumstances.
(Miraat al-ashiqeen, p. 28)
10. Hazrat Said Ameer of Koth (d. 1877 C.E.)
He was a well-known saint of Koth, district Mardaan, (North-West province
of Indian sub-continent) during the late nineteenth century.
- It is recorded about him:
On Sunday the 21st of the month of Rajab, the holy
saint received in revelation from God the following verses of the
Holy Quran:... O Prophet, Keep your duty to God and obey
not the disbelievers and the hypocrites; surely God is ever-knowing
and wise,... Indeed there is for you in the Messenger
of God an excellent example for him who hopes for God and the Last
Day, and remembers God much.
(Nazm al-Durrar fi Silk al-Siyar, by Mulla Safi-ullah,
disciple of Said Ameer, p. 152; see also its Urdu translation Durr-i
Israr by Abdur-Razzaq Kausar, Sahibzada Book Foundation, Koth,
Pakistan, 1985, p. 266)
- He said:
Know that to be appointed by God means messengership,
and everyone who is appointed is a messenger (rasul).
(ibid., p. 100; Urdu translation, p. 175)
11. Maulana Abdullah Ghaznavi
He was a disciple of Hazrat Said Ameer, and it is recorded about him that
he received many Divine revelations which contained verses from the Holy
Quran. See Section 4.3, extract no. 18.
12. Shah Wali-ullah of Delhi (d. 1763 C.E.)
This renowned Islamic philosopher, writer and theologian, recognised as
mujaddid of his time, wrote:
It was put into my mind to convey to the people that this
poor one has been taught many languages ... The teaching which was
given to Adam was me, the Divine help which Noah received during the
flood was me, the fire which cooled for Abraham was me, the Torah
revealed to Moses was me, the miracle of raising the dead granted
to Jesus was me, the Quran given to Muhammad the Holy Prophet was
me. All praise is due to God, the Lord of all the worlds.
(Tafhimat, Part I, as quoted in journal Curzon Gazette,
15 October 1902).
13. Sayyid Muhammad Ismail Shaheed (d. 1831 C.E.)
He writes in praise of his leader Sayyid Ahmad Barelvi (Muslim religious
and military leader in North-West India in early nineteenth century) as
Joseph has now come to Egypt from Canaan, and a whole world
has come for his purchase.
The name ansar is applied to a group of the Companions of the Holy
Prophet. Here Sayyid Ahmad Barelvi has been called Joseph, Jesus, Ahmad
(Holy Prophet Muhammad), and even the Last of the Prophets. His
companions have been called Companions of the Holy Prophet. Such expressions
are used because of the similarity and likeness which the saints bear
To give life to the dead the breath of Jesus has now come into
From Madina my Ahmad has come, from the cave of Saur, to teach
Sayyid Ahmad came one day with his companions. You should say
that the Last of the Prophets came again with his Companions.
(Najm al-Saqib, vol. ii)
14. Khawaja Mir Dard of Delhi (d. 1785 C.E.)
This famous saint, author and poet, wrote:
Every perfect man is the Jesus of his time due to the all-encompassing
power of God. And every moment he faces for his own self the affair
of the soul of Jesus.
(Risala Dard, p. 211)
15. Shah Niyaz Ahmad of Delhi (d. 1834 C.E.)
He described his spiritual experiences as follows:
Sometimes I am Idris [Biblical Enoch], sometimes Seth, sometimes
Noah, sometimes Jonah, sometimes Joseph, sometimes Jacob, and sometimes
Hud. Sometimes I am Salih, sometimes Abraham, sometimes Isaac, sometimes
Yahya [Biblical John, the Baptist], sometimes Moses, sometimes Jesus,
and sometimes David.
I am Jesus son of Mary, and I am Ahmad Hashmi [i.e. Holy Prophet
(Diwan-e Niaz Barelavi, compiled by Dr. Anwar-ul-Hasan, Lucknow,
1967, p. 68 and p. 65)
16. Khawaja Muhammad Nasir Muhammadi (d. 1758 C.E.)
He wrote in his famous work Nala-yi-Andalib (Lamentation
of the Nightingale):
There have been perfect, and still more perfect, saints among
the Muslims. In terms of their spiritual progress and path of development,
some were like Adam, some like Noah, some like Abraham, some like
David, some like Jacob, some like Moses, some like Jesus, and some
were like Muhammad.
(Nala-yi-Andalib, vol. i, p. 243)
17. Shaikh Sabir Kalyari
He wrote of Sufi Sayyid Abid Mia Usmani Naqshbandi as follows:
I call him Kaba, or Quran, or Prophet, or God.
(Miraj-ul-Mumineen, pp. 144 145)
18. Nasir-ud-Din Chiragh of Delhi (d. 1356 C.E.)
He was the successor of the famous saint Nizam-ud-Din Auliya. In a verse
of poetry, he says:
O you outwardly pious one! What do you ask me concerning the
rank of qurb [nearness to God]. It is in me and I am in it,
as fragrance is in the rose.
19. Shah Sharf Abu Ali Qalendar of Panipat (d. 1323 C.E.):
Moses fainted upon seeing the Divine fire manifested in a
But I see that very fire in every tree.
20. Maulana Abu Muhammad Abdul Haqq Haqqani
This modern theologian writes in his Urdu commentary of the Quran:
A follower of the Holy Prophet may be granted that pure soul
which reflects his [the Holy Prophets] light, just as a mirror
reflects the light of the sun. Then, occasionally, supernatural signs
which are known as karamat begin to be shown at his hand. Such
a person is called a saint. There are many types of saints, such as
ghaus and qutb etc., but there is no scope to discuss
it in detail here.
(Tafsir Haqqani, Prologue, p. 5)
21. Shaikh Abdul Haqq Muhaddis of Delhi (d. 1642 C.E.)
He was an expert of Hadith and a most famous theologian of India. In his
commentary on Abdul Qadir Jilanis book Futuh-ul-Ghaib, he
Sainthood is the image (zill) of prophethood.
(Sharh Futuh-ul-Ghaib, p. 12)
22. Allama Dr Sir Muhammad Iqbal (d. 1938)
This renowned poet and philosopher of modern India and Pakistan composed
the following verses in praise of the saint of Delhi Nizam-ud-Din Auliya:
What the angels read, that is your name. Great is your status,
widespread is your grace.
A visit to your shrine is life for the heart. Your rank is higher
than that of the Messiah or Khizr.
(Baang-e Dara, under Iltija-e Musaafir)
23. Maulana Mahmud-ul-Hasan of Deoband (d. 1920)
He was a very well-known teacher at the Deoband theological school. He
wrote a long poem in eulogy of his two spiritual guides, Maulavi Rashid
Ahmad Gangohi (d. 1905) and Maulana Muhammad Qasim Nanotavi (d. 1880),
who founded the school in 1867. Some verses are given below:
Qasim the good and Rashid Ahmad, both possessors of glory,
the two of them were the Messiah of the age and Joseph of Canaan.
Lamenting the demise of Maulavi Rashid Ahmad Gangohi, he wrote:
They saved the faith from the samaris [corrupters of
religion] of the age. I say that the two of them were like Moses and
To be in their company and to serve them was, for the dead hearts,
nothing less than [the dead] being commanded by Jesus to Arise.
(Kuliyat Shaikh al-Hind, pp. 14 17)
Those who follow their low desires are perhaps proclaiming:
Glory to Hubal! [a god of pre-Islamic Arabs], because one like
the Founder of Islam has departed from the world. The Messiah of the
age has gone to the sky, leaving everyone behind.
He raised the dead to life, and let not the living die. Just
look at this Messianic work, O son of Mary.
Those who have the taste and zeal for spirituality in their
hearts, they were looking for the way to Gangoh even when in Makka.
(Marsiyya, by Maulana Mahmud-ul-Hasan)
24. Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi (d. 1943)
He was a well-known Deobandi theologian of earlier this century. In his
magazine he published a letter from a disciple, explaining the following
I see in a dream that while reciting the Kalima, There
is no god but Allah, and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah,
I am using your name instead of Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.
Thinking that I am wrong, I repeat the Kalima, but despite
wishing in my heart to say it correctly, my tongue involuntarily says
Ashraf Ali instead of the Holy Prophets name. ... When
I wake up and remember my mistake in the Kalima, ... to make
amends for the mistake I send blessings upon the Holy Prophet. However,
I am still saying: O Allah, bless our master, prophet and
leader Ashraf Ali, even though I am awake and not dreaming.
But I am helpless, and my tongue is not in my control.
The reply given by the Maulana, printed after the letter, is as follows:
In this incident, it was intended to satisfy you that the
one to whom you turn [for spiritual guidance, i.e. Ashraf Ali] is
a follower of the Holy Prophets example.
(Monthly Al-Imdad, issue for the month of Safar, 1336
A.H., circa 1918, p. 35)
25. Maulana Ahmad Raza Khan (d. 1921)
He founded the Barelvi group at the end of the nineteenth century, which
is much opposed to the Deobandis. It is recorded about him:
Issue no. 2: The Darood [prayers to invoke blessings
upon the Holy Prophet Muhammad], instead of being invoked upon the
Holy Prophet, should be invoked upon his eminence [Ahmad
Raza Khan], as his disciples are always saying in his honour: Allah
bless and send peace upon the servant of the Holy Prophet, Maulana
(Al-Janna li-ahl al-Sunna, p. 127, as quoted in Deoband
Se Barelli Tak, 3rd edition, 1971, Idara Islamiyyat, Lahore, p.
26. Shaikh Sadiq Gangohi
This saint told a disciple to say:
There is no god but Allah, and Sadiq is the messenger of Allah.
(Al-Takashaf an Mahmat al-Tasawwuf, p. 594)
27. Maulana Abdul Majid Daryabadi (d. 1977)
He was an Indian religious scholar of recent times. Regarding the use
of the word nabi for saints, who are not prophets, he once wrote
in his newspaper as follows:
Recently, by co-incidence, I found an example of it in the
poetry of Maulana Rumi. And that too, not in some apocryphal work,
but in the renowned and famous, authentic book Masnawi. Regarding
the status and excellence of the spiritual guide it is written:
When you give your hand into the hand of a spiritual guide,
you seek to imbibe wisdom as the mentor is the knowing and discerning.
O disciple, he is a prophet of his time, as his person radiates the
light of the Prophet.
It is clearly stated here that the perfect spiritual guide
is the prophet of the time because he reflects the light of prophethood.
Great theologians, philosophers, and spiritual men have written commentaries
on the Masnawi, but none of them took exception to this form
of expression. Rumis own son, Sultan Walad, has made the following
comment: The exaggeration in likening a saint to a prophet refers
to the penetrating effect of his guidance; otherwise, at no time was
prophethood thinkable after the Holy Prophet Muhammad.
Masnawi, vol. v, p. 67, footnote 13, printed at Kanpur.
Obviously we will still call it lacking in due caution, but
it is equally obvious that instances of such lack of caution are to
be found in the writings of the great religious leaders of classical
(Newspaper Sidq Jadeed, 8 August 1952)
28. Pir Jamaat Ali Shah
It is written about him in a poem:
Madina is holy and blessed, and so is Alipur. It is well to
go there, and well to come here.
Your court is that court which is the qibla [Muslim direction
of prayer] for mankind. Your tomb is the shrine which rivals the Holy
House of God [in Makka].
(Anwar as-Sufiyya, published 1930, p. 9, quoted in Raza
Khani Deen, p. 54)
29. Allama Sir Muhammad Iqbal (d. 1938)
In praise of the perfect believer, he writes in a poem:
He is Kalim [Moses], he is Masih [Messiah],
he is Khalil [Abraham].
He is Muhammad, he is the Quran, he is Gabriel.
Many more pronouncements and writings of Islamic religious scholars, saints
and divines can be presented, but we rest with the above. This was the
prevailing environment of Islamic spiritual thought in which Hazrat Mirza
Ghulam Ahmad appeared. He was the Reformer, not only of the formal side
of Islam (broadly termed Shariah), but also of the spiritual
and mystic sides which pertain to spiritual development and are known
as Tariqat and Tasawwuf. Hence he has employed and explained
the terms and concepts of this aspect of Islam as well.
It must be remembered that these terms of Tariqat are not un-Islamic.
It is just that the concepts expressed by the Quran and Hadith in terms
such as khilafat (successorship to Holy Prophet), wilayat
(sainthood), imamat (religious leadership), mujaddidiyyat,
muhaddasiyyat, etc. are referred to by the men of Tariqat
as reflected prophethood, manifested prophethood,
metaphorical prophethood etc. (zilli, buroozi, majazi
All these terms of Tariqat had been well-known and in vogue
since close to the beginning of Islam. And the great theologians of
Hazrat Mirzas time knew that, despite the fact that the Holy Prophet
Muhammad was the last and final Prophet, it is not prohibited
in Islam for a perfect follower who reaches the stage of fana fir-rasul
to use for himself the words prophet and messenger
in a literal, non-technical sense. In fact, this was a standard mode
of expression amongst the Sufis. So it was that when Hazrat Mirza, in
his first book entitled Barahin Ahmadiyya, published in four
parts between 1880 and 1884, quoted his revelations containing the words
nabi and rasul referring to him, there was no criticism,
and indeed, lavish tributes were paid to this work. For instance:
1. Maulavi Muhammad Husain Batalvi, a leader of the Ahl-i Hadith sect,
wrote in a review:
Few are as well acquainted as ourselves with the life and
views of the author of Barahin Ahmadiyya. So we shall give
our opinion of it in brief words without exaggeration. In our opinion
this book, at this time and in view of the present circumstances,
is such that the like of it has not appeared in Islam up to now, while
nothing can be said about the future. Its author too has been so constant
in the service of Islam, with his money, life, pen and tongue, and
personal experience, that very few parallels can be found in the Muslims.
2. Maulana Sana-ullah of Amritsar, a staunch opponent of Hazrat Mirza
and the Ahmadiyya movement, wrote in a book:
(Journal Ishaat as-Sunna, vol. vii, no. 6, June to
August 1884, p. 169)
My relations with Mirza sahib can be divided into two phases:
the period of Barahin Ahmadiyya and the period afterwards.
During the period of Barahin Ahmadiyya [i.e. before his later
books], I took a favourable view of Mirza sahib. Thus, once when I
was about 17 or 18 years old, I was so eager to visit Qadian that
I walked there alone from the town of Batala.
3. In his obituary of Hazrat Mirza, the editor of the newspaper Wakeel
of Amritsar, Maulana Abdullah Al-Imadi, wrote:
(Tarikh Mirza, p. 53)
Though some Muslim religious leaders may now pass an adverse
verdict on Barahin Ahmadiyya, ... the best time to pass judgment
was 1880 when it was published. At that time, however, Muslims unanimously
decided in favour of Mirza sahib.
4. More recently, Mr Abdullah Malik has written:
(Wakeel, Amritsar, 30 May 1908)
The trouble is that all this examination is being done now,
over sixty years after the death of Mirza sahib. And as to the books
and writings of Mirza sahib, a century is now passing over them. So
this analysis too must be done with reference to those times. And
it must be accepted that at that time, due to various factors of the
period, a whole world was deeply impressed by the knowledge, scholarship
and writings of Mirza sahib.
(Panjab Ki Siyasi Tehrikain, i.e., Political Movements
in the Punjab, Kausar Publishers, Lahore, 1973, p. 270)