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Lesson - 37
"And women have rights similar to those against them
in a just manner, and men are a degree above them. And Allah is
Mighty, Wise." Ch. 2:228
Condition of women in Arabia and the world before
I have selected the sensitive issue of the rights and obligations
of men and women towards each other for our discussion today. The
human race is divided approximately equally between men and women.
This is therefore, a very important and universal issue. From the
beginning of creation, men because of their physical strength have
been able to dominate women. Before the advent of Islam, the women
had a very low status in the Arabian society. They were inherited
like property by men and this included their own stepmothers. They
could do as they wished with the women they inherited. They could
take them to be their wives, gift them to others, or sell them in
the market place. Birth of a female child was considered a disgrace.
The father would be reluctant to show his face outside the house
and would try quietly to bury his daughter alive. In the Hindu society
also, women, like cows and buffaloes, were considered as legal property
of men and the question of women rights did not even arise. According
to the Jewish tradition, woman is the evil persona, who on the instigation
of the devil tempted Adam and got him out of paradise, and forever
accursed humanity to sin. That is why the Saint Paul the originator
of present day Christian faith also condemns women.
Holy Quran predicts resurgence of women rights
in the modern age
The revelation of the Holy Quran gave rights to women, which even
to this day are non existent in the civilized western world, in
the very same societies which boast of their women liberation movements.
The Holy Quran has in fact predicted that a time will come:
"And when the one buried alive is asked. For what sin
she was killed" (81: 8,9).
The commentators have applied this verse to the day of judgment. If
God grants me a long enough life to do a commentary, I will, if Allah
pleases (inshallah) show you clearly that this amazing chapter
of the Holy Quran has made some surprising predictions about the modern
age. These prophecies offer such a cogent proof in support of the
truth of the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him),
and the Holy Quran, that no honest minded person can ignore them.
We are actually living in the times referred to in the above mentioned
It is a common weakness of human nature, that it tends to follow
extremes. For example, man can get so involved in pursuit of material
wealth, and its acquisition that it becomes the sole purpose of
his existence a god that he worships. The opposite extreme
to this is that a life of monasticism is considered the route to
salvation. A similar analogy is applicable to the rights of women.
For hundreds of years these rights were readily trampled upon. In
the present times however, women aspire for supremacy over men,
and long for political power. This environment creates doubts in
the minds of many western oriented girls, and even more mature women,
that perhaps Islam does not give women their rights, or equality
Status of women in Islam
Let us see what is the status of women in Islam. Every human being
male or female is made up of two elements, physical body, and the
spirit or soul. The body is a temporary abode for the spirit. Physically
man bears a resemblance to other animals, and many animals are stronger,
and more powerful than man. If intelligence is what puts man in
a higher class, then there are many animals who can be taught intelligent
behavior to some degree. What really differentiates man from animals,
and gives him superiority over them is the human spirit. This is
something separate from his animal existence. The spirit is bestowed
upon man during his creation, and breathed into him by Allah as
stated in the following verse:
"So when I have made him complete and breathed into him
of My spirit, fall down making obeisance to him" (15:29).
It is the human spirit which gives man the true distinction, and makes
him superior to other animals. The spirit is capable of reflecting
the Divine attributes, as is apparent from the Hadith of the Holy
Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him):
"Create the moral characteristics of Allah within yourself,"
and, the verse of the Holy Quran:
"(We take) Allah's colour, and who is better than Allah
at colouring, and we are His worshippers" (2:138).
After the demise of our bodies, the spirit moves on to the Hereafter,
and acquires a new and everlasting existence.
Spiritual rights of women:
Let us see the status of man and woman in Islam, as far as this
spirit is concerned. The following verse sheds light on this matter:
"O people, keep your duty to your Lord, Who created you
from a single being, and created its mate of the same (kind), and
spread from these two many men and women" (4:1).
As far as the spirit is concerned, men and women are, therefore on
an equal footing. No other principle of equality of rights for men
and women can provide a match for this, and because of it, both men
and women can achieve similar degrees of spiritual progress. In support,
I would like to quote one verse of the Holy Quran from many on the
"Surely the men who submit and the women who submit, and
the believing men and the believing women, and the obeying men and
the obeying women, and the truthful men and the truthful women,
and the patient men and the patient women, and the humble men and
the humble women, and the charitable men and the charitable women,
and the fasting men and the fasting women, and the men who guard
their chastity and the women who guard, and the men who remember
Allah much and the women who remember Allah has prepared
for them forgiveness and a mighty reward" (33:35).
Like men, women can also get revelation as stated in the Holy Quran
about Mary and the mother of Moses. There being no higher degree of
honor for any man or woman, than the gift of Divine revelation.
Material rights of women in Islam:
The Western culture, which has a strong influence on our younger
generation, has lost its appreciation of moral and spiritual values
and their growth. In fact, the values are frequently ridiculed.
Wealth and money have taken the place of God. Let us further examine
the issue from this standpoint. Holy Quran is the only revealed
Book, which over fourteen hundred years ago, gave property rights,
and right of inheritance to women at every level of society. These
were the very same women, who were themselves considered as property.
This was true whether she was a daughter, a sister, a wife, or a
mother. Has any other nation, or religion ever given such legal
rights in property and wealth to women? In the western society,
if a man wishes, he may give something to a woman, but it is not
her legal right. The Holy Quran fourteen hundred years ago, gave
numerous rights to women, and fixed their share in the property,
at a time when the rest of the world was not only oblivious of such
rights, but actually regarded women as property. Western oriented
women also object to why Islam gives women only half the property
rights of men? The answer to this objection is given by the Holy
Quran in the verse:
"Men are the maintainers of women, with what Allah has
made some of them to excel others and with what they spend out
of their wealth" (4:34).
Men are told that they are responsible for the protection, and
provision of the physical sustenance of women, because Allah has
given them physical strength superior to women. They are enjoined
to spend out of their wealth for maintaining women. This is an obligatory
command despite the fact that women are themselves allowed to earn
by lawful means as stated in:
"For men is the benefit of what they earn. And for women
is the benefit of what they earn" (4:32).
Regardless of this, man has been given the responsibility to provide
sustenance for his wife and children. Although a woman may voluntarily
participate in earning for the household, the responsibility for
it falls on the shoulders of man. Man has also been enjoined to
give mehr (obligatory donation of property, or wealth to the wife,
at the time of marriage) in accordance with his means. For a rich
person, this can be the equivalent of a pile of gold or silver (4:20).
Women, on the other hand, have not been commanded to give mehr to
men out of their property.
Based on his responsibility as a provider for his wife and children,
it is justifiable for a man to receive double the woman's share
of inherited property. Man is also enjoined not to take back any
of the marriage gifts given in the form of jewelry or clothing,
even in situations of divorce as stated in verse:
"And it is not lawful for you to take any part of what
you have given them, unless ... for what she gives up to become
free thereby" (2: 229).
It is, therefore unlawful for the husband to take anything back
of what he has given to his wife, unless the wife seeks divorce,
and of her own free will returns some portion back as a redemption.