6. The Hadith
What is the Hadith?
The term Hadith literature (or even just Hadith sometimes)
refers to a number of historical books which contain reports of the
sayings, actions and example of the Holy Prophet Muhammad, by which
he showed his followers how to put the teachings of the Holy Quran into
What does the word Hadith mean?
Hadith just means a saying. When used as a term in the religion
of Islam, a hadith means a report of what the Holy Prophet Muhammad
said or did on a certain occasion. In English books on Islam, the word
tradition is also used to denote a hadith. The word Hadith is
also applied to the books containing these reports.
Please name some books of Hadith.
The two most famous works of Hadith are: Sahih Bukhari and
Sahih Muslim. Each of these is named after the person who compiled
it, i.e., Bukhari and Muslim. The word Sahih in these titles
refers to the fact that the compilers of these books sifted the genuine
reports about the Holy Prophet from unfounded and unreliable stories,
so far as they could, and included only those which were trust-worthy.
There are many other books of Hadith, named after the compilers, such
as Tirmizi, Abu Dawud, and the Musnad of Ahmad Ibn Hanbal.
How did these books come to be compiled?
There were many teachings of the Holy Quran which the Holy Prophet
had to illustrate by his practice and actions (such as how to perform
the salaat). His followers learnt from and copied what he did,
and then by their example taught the next generation how to carry out
these practices. Apart from this practical side, the Holy Prophet's
sayings on various matters, and details of what he did on various occasions,
were also remembered by those who saw and heard him. They then related
all these things to other people. But, unlike the Holy Quran, these
details were usually not written down.
So these traditions were passed down from one generation to the next
by practical example (as in the case of prayer) and by word of mouth.
About 150 years after the Holy Prophet's death, some scholars decided
to try to trace all these traditions back to him, by following the chain
of people who had passed down each report from the Holy Prophet's time
to the then present time. From their great research, they compiled the
books of Hadith that we now have.
So the compilers of Hadith did not just record everything which they
heard people calling a Saying or action of the Holy Prophet?
No, they investigated each and every report of a saying or action
of the Holy Prophet to check whether the names of all the persons involved
in passing it down from his time were known. They also investigated
the lives and character of all these people to find out if they could
have had the opportunity of hearing and passing down the saying from
one to another, and if they were trustworthy and had good memories.
Bukhari and Muslim were more strict than other compilers in making these
checks before accepting a report as being genuine. This is why these
two books are regarded as the most reliable Hadith collections, Bukhari
being ranked highest of all.
What are the subjects covered in Hadith literature?
The reports in Hadith books are largely of the following kinds:
- Sayings of the Holy Prophet Muhammad about the basic teachings
and practices of Islam, such as beliefs, prayer, fasting, etc.
- His Sayings on various practical aspects of life, such as family
life, business dealings, the law, food and drink, moral qualities,
- Apart from Sayings, the actions and personal example of the Holy
Prophet which illustrate his teachings and go to show how he put them
into practice (e.g., reports of how he said his prayers, what he did
during the days of fasting, how he gave in charity, etc.)
- Reports about what sort of a person the Holy Prophet Muhammad was,
his everyday life, his noble character, his dealings with friend and
foe, the important events in his life, etc.
- Prophecies of the Holy Prophet relating to the future of Islam,
the Muslims, and mankind generally.
Are all the recorded reports in Hadith true and genuine?
No, not every single one. The people who passed on these reports by
word of mouth before they were compiled made mistakes in some cases.
There are also some reported sayings written down in books of Hadith
which the Holy Prophet may not have ever said at all. However, the bulk
of the reports, especially those contained in Bukhari and Muslim, are
genuine. The teachings which the Holy Prophet illustrated by his example
(such as how to perform the prayers) were copied by such a large number
of people that there cannot be any doubt at all about their genuineness.
Similarly, many of his Sayings were memorized and passed down by a number
of Companions in each case, not by just one person, and became wellknown
among the Muslims from the beginning.
Is it necessary for a Muslim to believe in and follow Hadith?
Yes, especially the part relating to the observance of religion and
to practical life. It must always be remembered, however, that Hadith
is meant to be a further explanation of the teachings of the Holy Quran.
Any report in Hadith books which appears to go against the Holy Quran
must be examined carefully to see if it can be given a meaning not contradicting
the Holy Book, and if not, it must be rejected.